References give the following definition of “liturgy”.
If the Achaemenids at one time did not notice it, clearly preferring ancient Mazdeism, the Parthian kings at the turn of our era have already brought it to the fore as a counterweight to Hellenic-Roman cultural influence, and in Sassanid Iran Zoroastrianism has become even the official state religion. the priest of the Zoroastrians mobedan-mobed was among the highest dignitaries of the state). Moreover, it became the ideological flag of all Iranians and in this capacity was the basis of a number of sectarian and religious movements.
Conclusion. Thus, the most commonIn ancient Iran, Zoroastrianism, or Parsism (226,000 believers), is an ancient Iranian religion that developed in the tenth and seventh centuries. BC BC and spread to Central Asia. This religion is called differently:
Zoroastrianism – after the name of its legendary founder – the prophet Zarathustra, or Zoroaster (589-512 BC); Mazdaism – on behalf of Ahuramazda – the main deity who embodies the world, good, truth, Life, and fights with Anra-Maya – the god of darkness, evil, lies and death; magic – its priests are from the tribe of magicians; the religion of the Avesta – from the name of the collection of sacred books; fire worship – in connection with the special cult of fire (in Iran, a small number of fire worshipers, whom Muslims contemptuously call the Hebrews – infidels); Mithraism – from the god-savior Mithras; parsism, whose followers now live in Bombay (India).
The essence of this religion comes down to Ahuramazda’s victorious struggle with Anra-Maya. The earthly sources of dualism should be sought in the peculiarities of the life of the ancient Iranian agricultural tribes, which suffered from the destructive attacks of the nomads.
Vasiliev LS History of the religions of the East: A textbook. – Moscow: Book House “University”, 1998. Kalinin Y., Kharkovchenko E. Religious Studies: Textbook. – K.: Scientific Opinion, 1995. Kapustin NS Features of the evolution of religion (on the materials of ancient beliefs and Christianity). – M .: Mysl, 1984. Lubsky VI Religious Studies: Textbook. –K .: Wilbor, 1997. Religious Studies / Ed. Fisherman. –K .: Education, 1997. Religious Studies / Ed. Bagel. – K.: Jurinkom Inter, 1998. Yablokov IN Religious Studies: Textbook and textbook – a minimum of religious studies. – M.: Gardarika, 1998.
Liturgy and Eucharist, their historical development. Abstract
The central point of the Liturgy is the celebration of the Eucharist, ie the offering of gifts. This is one of the main Christian sacraments called the Sacrament of Holy Communion. The Eucharist was instituted by Jesus Christ himself during the Last Supper
Definition of the Liturgy
The whole meaning of Eastern spirituality lies in the Holy Liturgy. The very word “liturgy” comes from the ancient Greek language and was understood as “the work of one for the good of the whole community, the community.” Even the payment of taxes, sacrifices, military service, religious rituals, etc., were all called “liturgy” in one word.
In fact, this last religious and sacred significance of the Liturgy is the main one in the Christian tradition today. Thus, the Liturgy, as the primitive Church believed, is a “service of men before God” – a service of God, a Eucharistic sacrifice.
The liturgy is the most important service, during which the Holy Sacrament of Holy Communion (Holy Eucharist) is performed, instituted by our Lord Jesus Christ on Thursday evening, on the eve of His crucifixion.
References give the following definition of “liturgy”. This is the name of the most important Christian worship, which existed, though not in the same form, but in all Christian denominations and demonstrated the main ideas of the Christian worldview and the main ideas of the Christian church.
Eucharist. The last supper
The central moment of the Liturgy is the celebration of the Eucharist, ie the offering of gifts. This is one of the main Christian sacraments called the Sacrament of Holy Communion. The Eucharist was instituted by Jesus Christ himself during the Last Supper. The Bible says that Christ washed the feet of His apostle disciples (friends and followers). He did this to show them an example of humility.
On the evening of that day, Jesus Christ, knowing that He would be betrayed that night, came with His twelve apostles into a prepared room. As everyone lay down at the table, Jesus Christ said, “I longed to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. For I tell you that I will no longer eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.” Then he got up, took off his outer clothes, tied himself with a towel, poured water into the washbasin, and began to wash the disciples’ feet and wipe them with the towel with which he was girded.
After washing the disciples’ feet, Jesus Christ put on His clothes, lay down, and said to them, “Do you know what I have done to you? You call Me Teacher and Lord. So if I, the Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you must also wash your feet. KJV: For I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done unto you.
By this example, the Lord not only testified to His love for His disciples, but also taught them humility, that is, not to consider it humiliation to serve anyone, even a person lower than Himself.
After consuming the Old Testament Jewish Passover, Jesus Christ instituted the Sacrament of Holy Communion at this supper. That is why it is called the “Last Supper”.
The Lord praised God the Father, took the bread, blessed it, broke it, and gave it to the apostles, saying, “Take, eat; this is my body which is broken for you”; then He took a cup of grape wine, also blessed it, and handed it to the apostles, saying, “Drink of it all: this is My blood of the New Testament, which is shed for you and for many for the remission of sins “; having partaken of them, the Lord gave the commandment to always perform this sacrament: “Do this in remembrance of Me.”
These words mean that in the form of bread and wine, the Savior gave His same Body and the same Blood that He gave to suffer and die for our sins the next day. How bread and wine became the Body and Blood of the Lord is a mystery incomprehensible even to angels, and is therefore called a sacrament.
By partaking of the apostles, the Lord gave the commandment to always perform this sacrament, to commemorate Him. This sacrament is performed in our country and will be performed until the end of the age by a service called the liturgy.
During the Last Supper, the Savior announced to the apostles that one of them would betray Him. They were very upset and, looking at each other in confusion, asked one after another in fear: “Am I not, Lord?” Judas also asked, “Is it not I, Master?” The Savior tells him, “You said.” John lay beside the Savior. Peter motioned for him to ask who the Lord was talking about.
John fell to the Savior’s chest and quietly asked, “Lord, who is this?” Jesus Christ answered just as quietly, “He to whom I, having soaked, will give bread.” And he dipped a piece of bread in a bowl, and gave it to Judas Iscariot, saying, “What you do, do quickly.”
But no one understood why the Savior told him that. Because Judas had a box of money, the disciples thought that Jesus Christ was sending him to buy something for the feast or to give alms to the poor. Judas immediately took the bread and went out. It was already night.
And it came to pass, when the Lord had made supper, that he and his eleven disciples arose, and sang psalms, and went over the brook Kidron, unto the mount of Olives, to the garden of Gethsemane.
The Eucharist is precisely the main action of the Liturgy. Not only the Orthodox, but also the Catholics, and in the Armenian-Gregorian Church, bread and wine are considered the true body and blood of Christ. Gradually, however, different theologians began to give the Eucharist a slightly different meaning.
Thus, one of the most zealous supporters of the Reformation, Jean Calvin, in contrast to the Orthodox or Catholics, believed that the presence of the body and blood of Christ in the bread and guilt is not real but spiritual. The Eucharist is perceived differently, but it remains the main content of the Liturgy.
Different denominations perceive the bread itself, which is the body of Christ. Yes, Orthodox use sourdough bread, and Catholics – unleavened. The Eucharist can be celebrated, as a rule, only in the temple and only during the Liturgy. It is not possible to do it in the temple, but only if there are very good reasons for it.
For example, if the temple has not yet been completed or burned down. In the Orthodox Church, Holy Communion is preceded by two litanies and the Our Father prayer. All participants in the Eucharist in the Byzantine tradition partake of the Eucharist in two forms – Body and Blood. The introduction to the sacrament is a suggestive prayer in which the words about the liturgical “today” are given: Christ is asked to receive the communicant as a participant in His Last Supper.
After the communion, the minister blesses the faithful with a chalice and sings the Thanksgiving Litany. The intercessory prayer is preceded by the call “Let’s go writes your lab report for you out in peace.” In the past, these words referred to the real way out – from the sanctuary behind the pulpit, located once in the middle of the temple.
After reciting the zaamvon prayer, the clergy marched in procession to the above-mentioned sacristy. Thus the Divine Liturgy ended where it began (with the preparation of gifts). In modern practice, it ends, as well as other Byzantine services – a blessing and indulgence, in which there are always words about the true God – Christ the Lover of Man.
Evolution of the Order of the Divine Liturgy
The apostles performed St. communion according to the commandment and the example of Jesus Christ and taught Christians to perform this great and saving Sacrament. In the early days, the order and manner of the Liturgy were transmitted orally, and all prayers and sacred hymns were memorized. Then came a written exposition of the Apostolic Liturgy. Over time, the Liturgy was replenished with new prayers, songs and sacred acts, which violated the uniformity of its completion in different Churches.
There was a need to unite all the existing rites of the Liturgy, to develop a single common option. This was done in the fourth century, when the persecution of Christians ceased, and the Christian Church was given the opportunity to take up the organization of its internal life (Ecumenical Councils).
At this time, St. Basil the Great recorded and proposed for public use the rite of liturgy composed by him. St. John Chrysostom somewhat reduced this rank.